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Valencia Hui Xian Foo, Pavan Kumar Verkicharla, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Sharon Yu Lin Chua, Shirong Cai, Chuen Seng Tan, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Peter Gluckman, Tien-Yin Wong, Cheryl Ngo, Seang-Mei Saw, on behalf of the GUSTO study group; Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2016;5(1):5. doi: 10.1167/tvst.5.1.5.
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This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort.
Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE.
The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33).
The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error.
In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children.
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