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Tommaso Rossi, Giorgio Querzoli, Giampiero Angelini, Carlo Malvasi, Alessandro Rossi, Mario Morini, Graziana Esposito, Alessandra Micera, Natale Mario di Luca, Guido Ripandelli; Hydraulic Resistance of Vitreous Cutters: The Impact of Blade Design and Cut Rate. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2016;5(4):1. doi: 10.1167/tvst.5.4.1.
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© 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
To measure the hydraulic resistance (HR) of vitreous cutters equipped with a Regular guillotine Blade (RB) or double edge blade (DEB) at cut rates comprised between 0 and 12,000 cuts per minute (CPM) and compare it with vitreous fragment size. This was an in vitro experimental study; in vivo HR measure and vitreous sampling.
HR, defined as aspiration pressure/flow rate, was measured in balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) (in vitro) and during pars plana vitrectomy of 20 consecutive patients aged 18 to 65, undergoing macular surgery. HR was recorded at increasing cut rates (500–6000 CPM for the RB and 500–12,000 CPM for the DEB; 5 mL/min flow). Vitreous samples were withdrawn and analyzed with Western and collagen type II and IX immunostaining to evaluate protein size. The main outcome measures were hydraulic resistance (mm Hg/ml/min [±SD]) and optic density for Western blot and immunostaining.
RB and DEB showed identical HR in BSS between 0 and 3000 CPM. Above 3000 CPM, RB HR steadily increased, and was significantly higher than DEB HR. Vitreous HR was also similar for the two blades between 0 and 1500 CPM. Above 1500 CPM, RB offered a significantly higher resistance. Western blot and immunostaining of vitreous samples did not yield a significant difference in size, regardless of blade type and cut rate.
DEB is more efficient, offering a lower HR than RB over 1500 CPM in human vitreous. There is no viscosity reduction as a function of cut-rate between 1500 and 12,000 CPM, as HR does not vary.
Future vitreous cutters will benefit of a DEB; optimal cut rate needs to be defined, and the simple increase of cut rate does not provide benefits after a certain limit to be assessed.
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