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Algis J. Vingrys, Jessica K. Healey, Sheryl Liew, Veera Saharinen, Michael Tran, William Wu, George Y. X. Kong; Validation of a Tablet as a Tangent Perimeter. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2016;5(4):3. doi: 10.1167/tvst.5.4.3.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe a tangent perimeter developed on an Apple iPad (Melbourne Rapid Field, MRF).
The MRF assays 66 locations over 28° × 18° by having the patient vary fixation. Spot size and background luminance are paired to yield constant thresholds across the field. Spot locations were selected after analysis of 360 patient records. The capacity of the MRF to detect defects was verified in five participants (age 22–28 years) by simulating four common losses: central, arcuate, quadrant, and hemianopia. We also consider the effect of: myosis, blur (+3 DS), viewing distance (25–75 cm), ambient light (4–600 lux), and retest repeatability (1-week apart) on thresholds. Group means [SEM] are compared by Student's t-test and repeatability returned from Bland-Altman analysis.
We found a 5 cd.m−2 background replicates the Weber fraction produced by a Humphrey spot shown at 35 dB. Our variable size gives constant thresholds (29.6 [0.2] dB) across all locations. Altering viewing distance (25 cm = 29.8 [0.9] dB; 75 cm = 28.9 [0.6] dB) and ambient lighting (4 lux, 29.8 [0.8] dB; 600 lux, 29.5 [1.0] dB) did not affect threshold although screen reflections must be avoided. Myosis (−1.2 dB) and blur (−1.5 dB) will reduce sensitivity (P < 0.05). Simulated defects with a mean defect (MD) of −3.3 dB are detected by the MRF. The Coefficient of repeatability was 9.6% (SD ∼2.9 dB) in normal regions and 48.1% (SD ∼8.0 dB) in areas of simulated scotoma.
Tablet technology can return efficient and reliable thresholds to 30° as a tangent perimeter.
The MRF will allow testing at a bedside, at home, in rural or remote areas, or where equipment cannot be financed.
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