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Mehmet Coskun, Nurhayat O. Sevencan; The Evaluation of Ophthalmic Findings in Women Patients With Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2018;7(4):16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.7.4.16.
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To determine whether there are differences in the central corneal thickness (CCT), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) in women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (B12DA).
The patients were divided and evaluated in three groups as IDA (group 1), combined IDA-B12DA (group 2), and healthy females (group 3). Each group constituted 35 subjects. CCT, endothelial cell density (CD), the coefficient of variation (CV), and hexagonality (HEX) values were evaluated. Superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal retinal nerve fiber analysis were done, and mean thickness of GC-IPL complex was also evaluated.
CCT was found to be less (thin CCT) in group 2 as compared to group 1 and group 3 (P = 0.016 and P = 0.013, respectively). While CD measurements did not vary significantly between the groups, CV value was found to be lower in the control group as compared to that in the other groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). HEX and the thicknesses of all RNFL and GC-IPL were lower in both the anemic groups as compared to the control group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.013, respectively); however, no significant difference was determined between the anemia groups.
It should be noted that anemia is a common clinical picture particularly seen in women, and there may be a tendency toward corneal and retinal disorders in these patients. The present study found that presence in the patients with IDA and with combined IDA-B12DA may have influenced endothelial functions; also the patients with anemia had significantly thinner CCT than healthy controls.
Optical coherence tomography and specular microscopy measurements may provide important data for early diagnosis and treatment of both corneal and retinal diseases according to the type of anemia in anemic women.
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