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Jason G. Dwight, Christina Y. Weng, Michal E. Pawlowski, Tomasz S. Tkaczyk; A Dye-Free Analog to Retinal Angiography Using Hyperspectral Unmixing to Retrieve Oxyhemoglobin Abundance. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(3):44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.8.3.44.
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Retinal angiography evaluates retinal and choroidal perfusion and vascular integrity and is used to manage many ophthalmic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. The most common method, fluorescein angiography (FA), is invasive and can lead to untoward effects. As an emerging replacement, noninvasive OCT angiography (OCTA) is used regularly as a dye-free substitute with superior resolution and additional depth-sectioning abilities; however, general trends in FA as signified by varying intensity in images are not always reproducible in the fine structural detail in an OCTA image stack because of the source of their respective signals, OCT speckle decorrelation versus fluorescein emission.
We present a noninvasive/dye-free analog to angiography imaging using retinal hyperspectral imaging with a nonscanning spectral imager, the image mapping spectrometer (IMS), to reproduce perfusion-related data based on the abundance of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) in the retina. With a new unmixing procedure of the IMS-acquired spectral data cubes (350 × 350 × 43), we produced noninvasive HbO2 maps unmixed from reflectance spectra.
Here, we present 15 HbO2 maps from seven healthy and eight diseased retinas and compare these maps with corresponding FA and OCTA results with a discussion of each technique.
Our maps showed visual agreement with hypo- and hyperfluorescence trends in venous phase FA images, suggesting that our method provides a new use for hyperspectral imaging as a noninvasive angiography-analog technique and as a complementary technique to OCTA.
The application of hyperspectral imaging and spectral analysis can potentially improve/broaden retinal disease screening and enable a noninvasive technique, which complements OCTA.
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