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Candice Davidoff, Maureen Neitz, Jay Neitz; Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2016;5(5):2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.5.5.2.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The genetics underlying inherited color vision deficiencies is well understood: causative mutations change the copy number or sequence of the long (L), middle (M), or short (S) wavelength sensitive cone opsin genes. This study evaluated the potential of opsin gene analyses for use in clinical diagnosis of color vision defects.
We tested 1872 human subjects using direct sequencing of opsin genes and a novel genetic assay that characterizes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the MassArray system. Of the subjects, 1074 also were given standard psychophysical color vision tests for a direct comparison with current clinical methods.
Protan and deutan deficiencies were classified correctly in all subjects identified by MassArray as having red–green defects. Estimates of defect severity based on SNPs that control photopigment spectral tuning correlated with estimates derived from Nagel anomaloscopy.
The MassArray assay provides genetic information that can be useful in the diagnosis of inherited color vision deficiency including presence versus absence, type, and severity, and it provides information to patients about the underlying pathobiology of their disease.
The MassArray assay provides a method that directly analyzes the molecular substrates of color vision that could be used in combination with, or as an alternative to current clinical diagnosis of color defects.
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