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Alex S. Huang, Sindhu Saraswathy, Anna Dastiridou, Alan Begian, Hanz Legaspi, Chirayu Mohindroo, James C. H. Tan, Brian A. Francis, Joseph Caprioli, David R. Hinton, Robert N. Weinreb; Aqueous Angiography with Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green in Bovine Eyes. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2016;5(6):5. doi: 10.1167/tvst.5.6.5.
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We characterize aqueous angiography as a real-time aqueous humor outflow imaging (AHO) modality in cow eyes with two tracers of different molecular characteristics.
Cow enucleated eyes (n = 31) were obtained and perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1-mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5%) or indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) were introduced intracamerally at 10 mm Hg individually or sequentially. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas.
Aqueous angiography in cow eyes with fluorescein and ICG yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Over time, ICG maintained a better intraluminal presence. Angiographically positive, but not negative, areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens with anterior segment OCT. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Sequential aqueous angiography with ICG followed by fluorescein in cow eyes demonstrated similar patterns.
Aqueous angiography in model cow eyes demonstrated segmental angiographic outflow patterns with either fluorescein or ICG as a tracer.
Further characterization of segmental AHO with aqueous angiography may allow for intelligent placement of trabecular bypass minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries for improved surgical results.
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