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Nicholas P. Murray, Melissa Hunfalvay, Takumi Bolte; The Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data of Interpupillary Distance and Pupil Diameter Using Eye-Tracking Technology. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2017;6(4):2. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.6.4.2.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of interpupillary distance (IPD) and pupil diameter (PD) measures using an infrared eye tracker and central point stimuli. Validity of the test compared to known clinical tools was determined, and normative data was established against which individuals can measure themselves.
Participants (416) across various demographics were examined for normative data. Of these, 50 were examined for reliability and validity. Validity for IPD measured the test (RightEye IPD/PD) against the PL850 Pupilometer and the Essilor Digital CRP. For PD, the test was measured against the Rosenbaum Pocket Vision Screener (RPVS). Reliability was analyzed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between trials with Cronbach's alpha (CA) and the standard error of measurement for each ICC. Convergent validity was investigated by calculating the bivariate correlation coefficient.
Reliability results were strong (CA > 0.7) for all measures. High positive significant correlations were found between the RightEye IPD test and the PL850 Pupilometer (P < 0.001) and Essilor Digital CRP (P < 0.001) and for the RightEye PD test and the RPVS (P < 0.001).
Using infrared eye tracking and the RightEye IPD/PD test stimuli, reliable and accurate measures of IPD and PD were found. Results from normative data showed an adequate comparison for people with normal vision development.
Results revealed a central point of fixation may remove variability in examining PD reliably using infrared eye tracking when consistent environmental and experimental procedures are conducted.
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