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PremNandhini Satgunam, Sourav Datta, Koteswararao Chillakala, Karthik R. Bobbili, Dhruv Joshi; Pediatric Perimeter—A Novel Device to Measure Visual Fields in Infants and Patients with Special Needs. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2017;6(4):3. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.6.4.3.
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There are no commercially available devices to measure visual fields in infants. We developed a device, “Pediatric Perimeter,” that quantifies visual field extent (VFE) for infants. We describe the construction, validation, and use of this device.
A hemispherical dome with light emitting diodes (LEDs) was constructed. The LEDs were controlled using a computer program to measure reaction time (RT) to gross visual fields (GVF) and the VFE. Participants were tested in supine position in a dark room. Eye or head movement towards the stimuli was monitored with an infrared (IR) camera. Validation was done on 10 adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 5 years) with tunnel vision simulator.
Perimetry was performed on 19 infants (age: 2.3–12 months), five infants with normal milestones. GVF and VFE were estimated in 17 and 7 infants, respectively. Median RT of infants with developmental delay was 663 ms and 380 ms for healthy infants. Also, 14 children (age: 14 months–6 years) with developmental delay and five patients with cognitive impairment were tested.
Visual field isopter and RT can be examined with the Pediatric Perimeter device on infants and patients with special needs. Further testing on infants will need to assess the repeatability. A large-scale study will be needed to compare typically developing infants and infants with delayed milestones with this device.
Quantifiable parameters obtained with this device can be used as outcome measures in clinical examination of infants and patients with special needs. This device can be used in pediatric, neurology, and ophthalmology clinics.
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