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Maximilian W.M. Wintergerst, Thomas Schultz, Johannes Birtel, Alexander K. Schuster, Norbert Pfeiffer, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Frank G. Holz, Robert P. Finger; Algorithms for the Automated Analysis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Biomarkers on Optical Coherence Tomography: A Systematic Review. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2017;6(4):10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.6.4.10.
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To assess the quality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) grading algorithms for retinal biomarkers of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Following a systematic review of the literature data on detection and quantification of AMD retinal biomarkers by available algorithms were extracted and descriptively synthesized. Algorithm quality was assessed using a modified version of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 checklist with a focus on accuracy against established reference standards and risk of bias.
Thirty five studies reporting computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools for qualitative analysis or algorithms for quantitative analysis were identified. Compared with manual assessment in reference standards correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.97 for drusen, 0.80 to 0.98 for geographic atrophy (GA), and 0.30 to 0.98 for intra- or subretinal fluid and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) detection by automated algorithms. CAD tools achieved area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.94 to 0.99, sensitivity of 0.90 to 1.00, and specificity of 0.89 to 0.92.
Automated analysis of AMD biomarkers on OCT is promising. However, most of the algorithm validation was performed in preselected patients, exhibiting the targeted biomarker only. In addition, type and quality of reported algorithm validation varied substantially.
The development of algorithms for combined, simultaneous analysis of multiple AMD biomarkers including AMD staging and the agreement on standardized validation procedures would be of considerable translational value for the clinician and the clinical researcher.
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