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Rachel L. Z. Goh, Yu Xiang George Kong, Colm McAlinden, John Liu, Jonathan G. Crowston, Simon E. Skalicky; Objective Assessment of Activity Limitation in Glaucoma with Smartphone Virtual Reality Goggles: A Pilot Study. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2018;7(1):10. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.7.1.10.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the use of smartphone-based virtual reality to objectively assess activity limitation in glaucoma.
Cross-sectional study of 93 patients (54 mild, 22 moderate, 17 severe glaucoma). Sociodemographics, visual parameters, Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 and Visual Function Questionnaire – Utility Index (VFQ-UI) were collected. Mean age was 67.4 ± 13.2 years; 52.7% were male; 65.6% were driving. A smartphone placed inside virtual reality goggles was used to administer the Virtual Reality Glaucoma Visual Function Test (VR-GVFT) to participants, consisting of three parts: stationary, moving ball, driving. Rasch analysis and classical validity tests were conducted to assess performance of VR-GVFT.
Twenty-four of 28 stationary test items showed acceptable fit to the Rasch model (person separation 3.02, targeting 0). Eleven of 12 moving ball test items showed acceptable fit (person separation 3.05, targeting 0). No driving test items showed acceptable fit. Stationary test person scores showed good criterion validity, differentiating between glaucoma severity groups (P = 0.014); modest convergence validity, with mild to moderate correlation with VFQ-UI, better eye (BE) mean deviation, BE pattern deviation, BE central scotoma, worse eye (WE) visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity (CS) in both eyes (R = 0.243–0.381); and suboptimal divergent validity. Multivariate analysis showed that lower WE CS (P = 0.044) and greater age (P = 0.009) were associated with worse stationary test person scores.
Smartphone-based virtual reality may be a portable objective simulation test of activity limitation related to glaucomatous visual loss.
The use of simulated virtual environments could help better understand the activity limitations that affect patients with glaucoma.
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