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Xiaoqi Geng, Xiaoyu Liu, Wei Wei, Yawei Wang, Lizhen Wang, Kinon Chen, Hongqiang Huo, Yuanjie Zhu, Yubo Fan; Mechanical Evaluation of Retinal Damage Associated With Blunt Craniomaxillofacial Trauma: A Simulation Analysis. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2018;7(3):16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.7.3.16.
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To evaluate retinal damage as the result of craniomaxillofacial trauma and explain its pathogenic mechanism using finite element (FE) simulation.
Computed tomography (CT) images of an adult man were obtained to construct a FE skull model. A FE skin model was built to cover the outer surface of the skull model. A previously validated FE right eye model was symmetrically copied to create a FE left eye model, and both eye models were assembled to the skull model. An orbital fat model was developed to fill the space between the eye models and the skull model. Simulations of a ball-shaped object striking the frontal bone, temporal bone, brow, and cheekbones were performed, and the resulting absorption of the impact energy, intraocular pressure (IOP), and strains on the macula and ora serrata were analyzed to evaluate retinal injuries.
Strain was concentrated in the macular regions (0.18 in average) of both eyes when the frontal bone was struck. The peak strain on the macula of the struck-side eye was higher than that of the other eye (>100%) when the temporal bone was struck, whereas there was little difference (<10%) between the two eyes when the brow and cheekbones were struck. Correlation analysis showed that the retinal strain time histories were highly correlated with the IOP time histories (r > 0.8 and P = 0.000 in all simulation cases).
The risk of retinal damage is variable in craniomaxillofacial trauma depending on the struck region, and the damage is highly related to IOP variation caused by indirect blunt eye trauma.
This finite element eye model allows us to evaluate and understand the indirect ocular injury mechanisms in craniomaxillofacial trauma for better clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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