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Gareth Lingham, Seyhan Yazar, Robyn M. Lucas, John P. Walsh, Kun Zhu, Michael Hunter, Ee Mun Lim, Brian R. Cooke, David A. Mackey; Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Not Associated With Refractive Error in Middle-Aged and Older Western Australian Adults. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(1):13. doi: 10.1167/tvst.8.1.13.
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To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.
Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autorefraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at −80°C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <−0.50 D.
After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (β = −0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.03 to −0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (<50 nmol/L), medium (≥50 to <75 nmol/L), and upper (≥75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.
There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.
This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.
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