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Shrinivas Pundlik, Matteo Tomasi, Rui Liu, Kevin Houston, Gang Luo; Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Measuring Eye Alignment. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(1):19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.8.1.19.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
We evaluate a smartphone application (app) performing an automated photographic Hirschberg test for measurement of eye deviations.
Three evaluation studies were conducted to measure eye deviations in the horizontal direction. First, gaze angles were measured with respect to the ground truth in nonstrabismic subjects (n = 25) as they fixated monocularly on targets of known eccentricity covering an angular range of approximately ±13°. Second, phoria measurements with the app at near fixation (distance = 40 cm) were compared with the modified Thorington (MT) test in normally-sighted subjects (n = 14). Third, eye deviations using the app were compared to a cover test with prism neutralization (CTPN; n = 66) and Synoptophore (n = 34) in strabismic subjects. Regression analyses were used to compare the app and clinical measurements of the magnitude and direction of eye deviations (prism diopters, Δ).
The gaze angles measured by the app closely followed the ground truth (slope = 1.007, R2 = 0.97, P < 0.001), with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 2.4Δ. Phoria measurements with the app were consistent with MT (slope = 0.94, R2 = 0.97, P < 0.001, RMSE = 1.7Δ). Overall, the strabismus measurements with the app were higher than with Synoptophore (slope = 1.15, R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001), but consistent with CTPN (slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.95, P < 0.001). After correction of CTPN values for near fixation, the consistency of the app measurements with CTPN was improved further (slope = 1.01).
The app measurements of manifest and latent eye deviations were consistent with the comparator clinical methods.
A smartphone app for measurement of eye alignment can be a convenient clinical tool and has potential to be beneficial in telemedicine.
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