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Hyunjoo Jean Lee, Lei Zhang, Sui Zhang, Ji Yi; Detection of Malignancy in Ocular Surface Lesions by Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Autofluorescence. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(3):16. doi: 10.1167/tvst.8.3.16.
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Advanced imaging is increasingly important in the diagnosis of ocular surface malignancy. Inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (ISOCT) and two-photon autofluorescence microscopy (2P-AF) are emerging techniques capable of quantifying ultrastructural and metabolic changes, respectively. We aimed to detect malignancy in ocular surface lesions using ISOCT and 2P-AF.
Portions of excised specimens from patients undergoing conjunctival biopsy at Boston Medical Center were imaged by ISOCT and/or 2P-AF, and submitted for histologic diagnosis. Lesions were categorized as malignant, premalignant (with dysplasia) or benign. ISOCT and 2P-AF findings were compared between categories.
Fourteen specimens from 13 patients were collected. The IS-OCT marker D was 2.2-fold higher in combined malignant and premalignant (4.27 ± 0.28, n = 3) versus benign (1.92 ± 0.26, n = 11) lesions (P = 9 × 10−4). ISOCT markers μs and μb were not significantly different. By 2P-AF, the redox ratio was 0.24-fold lower in premalignant (0.11 ± 0.004, n = 2) versus benign (0.45 ± 0.04, n = 9) lesions (P = 1.08 × 10−5).
Conjunctival lesions with higher malignant potential had higher D and lower redox ratios. Higher D can correlate with ultrastructural changes associated with malignancy, similar to what has been seen in cancers of the gut mucosa. Lower redox ratios can suggest the presence of the Warburg effect, which is associated with tumorigenesis.
IS-OCT and 2P-AF can potentially be applied to the detection of malignancy or malignant potential in ocular surface lesions. ISOCT allows for the detection of nanoscale ultrastructural changes that are not resolvable by conventional OCT.
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