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Kazuaki Nishimura, Hitoshi Tabuchi, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yoshiki Nakatani, Akira Yorihiro, Shouichi Hasegawa, Hirotaka Tanabe, Asuka Noguchi, Ryota Aoki, Yoshiaki Kiuchi; Evaluation of Automatic Monitoring of Instillation Adherence Using Eye Dropper Bottle Sensor and Deep Learning in Patients With Glaucoma. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(3):55. doi: 10.1167/tvst.8.3.55.
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We developed and evaluated an eye dropper bottle sensor system comprising motion sensor with automatic motion waveform analysis using deep learning (DL) to accurately measure adherence of patients with antiglaucoma ophthalmic solution therapy.
We enrolled 20 patients with open-angle glaucoma who were treated with either latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% or latanoprost-timolol maleate fixed combination ophthalmic solution in both eyes. An eye dropper bottle sensor was installed at patients' homes, and they were asked to instill the medication and manually record each instillation time for 3 days. Waveform data were automatically collected from the eye dropper bottle sensor and judged as a complete instillation by the DL instillation assessment model. We compared the instillation times captured on the waveform data with those on each patient's record form. In addition, we also calculated instillation movement duration from Waveform data.
The developed eye bottle sensor detected all 60 instillation events (100%). Mean difference between patient and eye bottle sensor recorded time was 1 ± 1.22 (range, 0–3) minutes. Additionally, mean instillation movement duration was 16.1 ± 14.4 (range, 4–43) seconds. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in instillation movement duration among patients (P < 0.001) and across days (P < 0.001).
The eye dropper bottle sensor system developed by us can be used for automatic monitoring of instillation adherence in patients with glaucoma.
We believe that our eye dropper bottle sensor system will accurately measure adherence of all glaucoma patients as well as help glaucoma treatment.
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