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Heather A. Anderson, Ayeswarya Ravikumar, Julia S. Benoit, Jason D. Marsack; Impact of Pupil Diameter on Objective Refraction Determination and Predicted Visual Acuity. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2019;8(6):32. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.8.6.32.
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Objective refraction based on wavefront aberration measures is a potential tool for patients unable to participate in a subjective refraction, but the selection of a single pupil diameter for determination of the objective refraction may pose challenges. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of pupil diameter on determination of objective refractions for adults with and without Down syndrome (DS) and predicted change in acuity with increasing pupil diameter.
Wavefront error was obtained from 27 adults with DS and 24 controls, and metric-optimized refractions were identified for 4- and 6-mm pupil diameters. Total dioptric difference between refractions for the two pupil sizes was calculated, and repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in refractions. Next, five control observers read acuity charts produced to simulate image quality of each subject if the same refraction was applied for both a 4- and 6-mm pupil diameter. A comparison of acuity with performance on a clear chart was used to calculate letters lost for each chart. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for differences in letters lost from 4- and 6-mm diameters.
The dioptric difference between refractions for 4- and 6-mm pupils was significantly greater in subjects with DS (0.51 diopters vs. 0.19 diopters, P = 0.0012). Letters lost for predicted acuity was less for the 4-mm diameter than 6 mm for charts representing DS eyes (6.5 letters vs. 11 letters, P < 0.0001), as well as for typical eyes (4.5 letters vs. 8 letters, P < 0.0001).
Differences between refractions by pupil diameter were similar to the repeatability of subjective refraction. Visual acuity differences were clinically small, suggesting similar performance for objective refractions with increasing pupil diameter.
This work quantifies the potential impact of pupil diameter change on the performance of wavefront optimized refractions in clinical patients.
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