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Michelle Dreesbach, Lutz Joachimsen, Sebastian Küchlin, Michael Reich, Nikolai J. Gross, Alexander U. Brandt, Florian Schuchardt, Andreas Harloff, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf A. Lagrèze; Optic Nerve Head Volumetry by Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema Related to Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(3):24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.3.24.
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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) leads to optic nerve head swelling and optic atrophy if left untreated. We wanted to assess an easy to perform volumetric algorithm to detect and quantify papilledema in comparison to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Participants with and without IIH underwent visual acuity testing at different contrast levels and static perimetry. Spectralis-OCT measurements comprised standard imaging of the peripapillary RNFL and macular ganglion cell layer (GCL). The optic nerve head volume (ONHV) was determined using the standard segmentation software and the 3.45 mm early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) grid, necessitating manual correction within Bruch membrane opening. Three neuro-ophthalmologists graded fundus images according to the Frisén scale. A mixed linear model (MLM) was used to determine differences between study groups. Sensitivity and specificity was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC).
Twenty-one patients with IIH had an increased ONHV of 6.46 ± 2.36 mm3 as compared to 25 controls with 3.20 ± 0.25 mm3 (P < 0.001). The ONHV cutoff distinguishing IIH from controls was 3.97 mm3 (i.e. no patient with IIH had an ONHV below and no healthy individual above this value). The area under the curve (AUC) for ONHV was 0.99 and for the RNFL at 3.5 mm 0.90. The Frisén scale grading correlated higher with the ONHV (r = 0.90) than with the RNFL thickness (r = 0.68). ONHV measurements were highly reproducible in both groups (coefficient of variation <0.01%).
OCT-based volumetry of the optic nerve head discriminates very accurately between individuals with and without IIH. It may serve as a useful adjunct to the rating with the subjective and ordinal Frisén scale.
A simple OCT protocol run on the proprietary software of a commercial OCT device can reliably discriminate between normal optic nerve heads or pseudo-papilledema and true papilledema while being highly reproducible. Our normative data and OCT preset may be used in further clinical studies.
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