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Hiroyuki Shimada, Kimiko Kato, Kazuumi Ishida, Takanori Yamaguchi, Kei Shinoda; Evaluation of Retinal Function and Pathology After Intravitreal Injection of Povidone-Iodine and Polyvinyl Alcohol-Iodine in Rabbits. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(5):5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.5.5.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
This study compared intraocular toxicity of intravitreally injected povidone-iodine (PI) and polyvinyl alcohol-iodine (PAI) in rabbits.
In each rabbit, 0.1 mL of PI or PAI solution was injected intravitreally into one eye and saline was injected into the other. PI was tested at available iodine concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5%, and PAI at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% (n = 6 each). Electroretinograms were recorded before injection and 1, 7, and 14 days after injection. Pathological examinations of eyeballs were performed on day 15.
Mean b-/a-wave ratios of the electroretinograms did not change in eyes injected with 0.05%, 0.1%, or 0.2% PI (PI-0.05, PI-0.1, and PI-0.2, respectively) or in eyes injected with 0.05% or 0.1% PAI (PAI-0.05 and PAI-0.1, respectively) compared to saline-injected eyes, but was transiently impaired on day 1 in PAI-0.2 eyes. Histopathologically, no retinal abnormalities were observed in PI-0.05, PAI-0.05, or PAI-0.1 eyes. One PI-0.1 eye first showed localized inflammatory cell infiltration in the inferior retinal region. Two PI-0.2 eyes and one PAI-0.2 eye had retinal degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. In the PI-0.5 group, extensive inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in six eyes and inferior retinal detachment in five eyes.
PI and PAI have equivalent retinal toxicity profiles, and retinal toxicity first affects the inner retinal layer in the inferior region. The highest non-retinotoxic vitreous concentration is 0.0033% available iodine from intravitreal injection of PI or PAI containing 0.05% available iodine.
Low concentrations of PI or PAI can be used to wash the ocular surface during surgery or intravitreal injection to prevent endophthalmitis.
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