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Ellen B. M. Elsman, Carel F. W. Peeters, Ruth M. A. van Nispen, Ger H. M. B. van Rens; Network Analysis of the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) 7–12 Years with Visual Impairment. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(6):19. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.6.19.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Children with visual impairment often experience more difficulties regarding participation compared to sighted peers. The Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) has recently been developed to assess their participation needs. A novel application in the field of questionnaires is the use of network analysis to explore interrelations between items in order to capture their complex interactions as a reflection of the overall construct of measurement. This study aimed to apply network modeling for the PAI-CY 7–12 from the perspectives of children and their parents.
Children and their parents (n = 195) completed the 55-item PAI-CY via face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey, respectively. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concordance between children and parents were investigated. Two networks were created, along with visualizations of shared and differential connections between children and parents.
Eight items were deleted. Network structures were dissimilar; for children, connections evolved around social contacts and school items, whereas for parents, mobility, leisure time, acceptance, self-reliance, and communication items prevailed. In the children's network, playing imaginary games, inviting a friend to play at home, and estimating the distance from others were most connected to other items.
This study uniquely identifies connections between items of the PAI-CY 7–12, highlighting the different perspectives parents and children have on what defines participation, possibly implying that they perceive the relevance of various rehabilitation programs differently.
Rehabilitation programs aimed at improving the most connected items might positively affect other items in the network, possibly improving children's participation.
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