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Elena Lang, Samuel Koller, Luzy Bähr, Marc Töteberg-Harms, David Atac, Françoise Roulez, Angela Bahr, Katharina Steindl, Silke Feil, Wolfgang Berger, Christina Gerth-Kahlert; Exome Sequencing in a Swiss Childhood Glaucoma Cohort Reveals CYP1B1 and FOXC1 Variants as Most Frequent Causes. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(7):47. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.7.47.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of childhood glaucoma in Switzerland to recommend future targeted genetic analysis in the Swiss population.
Whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis was performed in a Swiss cohort of 18 patients from 14 unrelated families. Identified variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Breakpoints of structural variants were determined by a microarray. A minigene assay was conducted for functional analysis of a splice site variant.
A diagnosis of primary congenital glaucoma was made in 14 patients, of which six (43%) harbored pathogenic variants in CYP1B1, one (7%) a frameshift variant in FOXC1, and seven (50%) remained without a genetic diagnosis. Three patients were diagnosed with glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies, of which two patients with mild ocular features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome harbored a FOXC1 duplication plus an additional FOXC1 missense variant, and one patient with a Barkan membrane remained without genetic diagnosis. A diagnosis of juvenile open-angle glaucoma was made in one patient, and genetic analysis revealed a FOXC1 duplication.
Sequencing of CYP1B1 and FOXC1, as well as analysis of CNVs in FOXC1, should be performed before extended gene panel sequencing.
The identification of the molecular cause of childhood glaucoma is a prerequisite for genetic counseling and personalized care for patients and families.
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