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Yinying Zhao, Xiaohui Deng, Pingjun Chang, Man Hu, Zhangliang Li, Fan Zhang, Xixia Ding, Yune Zhao; Expression Profiles of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Aqueous Humor of Children after Congenital Cataract Extraction. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(8):3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.8.3.
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To investigate the change in cytokine microenvironment of the aqueous humor (AH) after surgery in children with congenital or developmental cataracts.
AH samples were obtained from 59 eyes diagnosed with a congenital or developmental cataract. Thirty-three of these eyes were aphakic following previous cataract surgery and were scheduled for secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Additionally, AH samples from 26 eyes that had not undergone surgery were taken. AH samples were then analyzed for 16 different inflammatory immune mediators using multiplex bead immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The mean interval between secondary IOL implantation and original cataract surgery was 24.85 months (range, 9–60 months). Levels of IL-6, IP-10 (CXCL10), MCP-1 (CCL2), and IL-2 were significantly elevated in the AH of eyes after surgery compared to eyes that did not undergo surgery (P < 0.001, P = 0.047, P = 0.006, P = 0.012, respectively). There was significant correlation between the levels of TGF-β2 and intraocular pressure (IOP) in postsurgical and nonsurgical eyes (r = 0.532, P = 0.006; r = 0.57, P = 0.001). Postsurgical outcomes, such as iris adhesions, capsular fibrosis, and capsular contraction, were found not to be significantly associated with cytokine levels in the AH after surgery; however, IL-6 levels in capsular exposure eyes were significantly higher than those in cortical closure eyes (P = 0.023).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report significantly increased proinflammatory cytokine levels in the AH after congenital cataract extraction in children. Our study also suggests that this proinflammatory state may be maintained for a prolonged period of time. Overall, these results give us insight into the relationship between the inflammatory cytokine microenvironment of the aqueous humor and potential long-term complications following congenital cataract surgery.
The inflammatory cytokine microenvironment of the aqueous humor might help explain potential long-term complications after surgery in patients with congenital or developmental cataracts.
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