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Friso G. Heslinga, Mark Alberti, Josien P. W. Pluim, Javier Cabrerizo, Mitko Veta; Quantifying Graft Detachment after Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(2):48. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.2.48.
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We developed a method to automatically locate and quantify graft detachment after Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) scans.
A total of 1280 AS-OCT B-scans were annotated by a DMEK expert. Using the annotations, a deep learning pipeline was developed to localize scleral spur, center the AS-OCT B-scans and segment the detached graft sections. Detachment segmentation model performance was evaluated per B-scan by comparing (1) length of detachment and (2) horizontal projection of the detached sections with the expert annotations. Horizontal projections were used to construct graft detachment maps. All final evaluations were done on a test set that was set apart during training of the models. A second DMEK expert annotated the test set to determine interrater performance.
Mean scleral spur localization error was 0.155 mm, whereas the interrater difference was 0.090 mm. The estimated graft detachment lengths were in 69% of the cases within a 10-pixel (∼150 µm) difference from the ground truth (77% for the second DMEK expert). Dice scores for the horizontal projections of all B-scans with detachments were 0.896 and 0.880 for our model and the second DMEK expert, respectively.
Our deep learning model can be used to automatically and instantly localize graft detachment in AS-OCT B-scans. Horizontal detachment projections can be determined with the same accuracy as a human DMEK expert, allowing for the construction of accurate graft detachment maps.
Automated localization and quantification of graft detachment can support DMEK research and standardize clinical decision-making.
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