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Jessica V. Jasien, Massimo A. Fazio, Brian C. Samuels, James M. Johnston, J. Crawford Downs; Quantification of Translaminar Pressure Gradient (TLPG) With Continuous Wireless Telemetry in Nonhuman Primates (NHPs). Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(12):18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.12.18.
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Recent retrospective clinical and animal studies suggest that cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) is important in glaucoma pathogenesis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and CSFP are the driving components of translaminar pressure (TLP = IOP – CSFP), which acts across the lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness to create the translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG = TLP/LC thickness).
We developed an implantable wireless telemetry system based on a small piezoelectric sensor with low temporal drift. IOP, measured in the anterior chamber, and intracranial pressure (ICP), measured in the brain parenchyma (as a surrogate for CSFP) were measured at 200 Hz in three male rhesus macaques (nonhuman primates, NHPs) on a 10% duty cycle (15 seconds of every 150-second period). Three-dimensional LC thickness was autosegmented as the mean thickness of the visible hyperreflective band in 48 radial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography b-scans centered on the optic nerve head.
Results indicated the rank order of IOP, ICP, TLP, and TLPG for waking, sleeping, and 24-hour periods averaged across all days. NHP 150110 had the highest IOP and ICP in all periods; however, it had the lowest TLPG in all periods due to its relatively thick LC. The other two NHPs showed similar shifts in the rank order of possible glaucoma risk factors.
IOP is the only modifiable and readily measurable pressure-based risk factor for glaucoma. However, other potential risk factors such as ICP, TLP, and TLPG, as well as their rank-order patterns, differed compared to IOP across subjects, demonstrating that a comprehensive view of relevant risk factors is warranted.
Future studies should consider including CSFP, TLP, and TLPG in addition to IOP as potential risk factors when assessing eye-specific glaucoma susceptibility.
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