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Li Su, Benjamin R. Lin, Fei Lin, Ilene K. Tsui, Stephanie L. Gaw, Carla Janzen, SriniVas R. Sadda, Irena Tsui; Maternal Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Changes Related to Small for Gestational Age Pregnancies. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2020;9(13):4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.13.4.
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To study maternal retinal changes in pregnancies that resulted in a small for gestational age (SGA) infant.
Pregnant women with SGA infants at birth and age-matched pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants at birth (controls) were enrolled. All subjects underwent spectral domain optical coherent tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging using a 10° × 10° scan pattern centered on the fovea. Vessel density (VD) and vessel length density (VLD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), intermediate capillary plexus (ICP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were analyzed and compared between the two groups.
Twelve eyes of eight subjects with SGA infants and 64 eyes of 44 age-matched subjects with AGA infants were included in this study. There was no significant difference in chronic hypertension (P = 1.0), gestational hypertension (P = 1.0), type 1/2 diabetes (P = 1.0), gestational diabetes (P = 0.97), or preeclampsia (P = 0.50) between the SGA group and AGA group. There were significant increases in both VD and VLD in the SCP and ICP layers when comparing the SGA group with the AGA group (P < 0.05).
In this pilot study, subjects with SGA infants had increases in selective retinal vasculature layers that may represent systemic perfusion changes compensating for placental insufficiency.
Additional assessment of maternal retinal changes in pregnancy using OCTA could prove the technology useful as a biomarker of fetal morbidity.
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