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Taku Imamura, Masashi Kakinoki, Daiki Hira, Tomoya Kitagawa, Satoshi Ueshima, Mikio Kakumoto, Tomohiro Terada, Ikuo Kawamoto, Mitsuru Murase, Masahito Ohji; Pharmacokinetics of Intravitreal Vancomycin and Ceftazidime in Silicone Oil-Filled Macaque Eyes. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2021;10(3):1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.3.1.
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This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of intravitreal vancomycin and ceftazidime in the aqueous humor of macaque eyes filled with silicone oil in the vitreous cavity.
Intravitreal vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 mL) and ceftazidime (2 mg/0.1 mL) were injected into four normal macaque eyes, four vitrectomized aphakic macaque eyes, and four previously vitrectomized aphakic macaque eyes filled with silicone oil (silicone oil-filled eyes). Aqueous humor samples (0.1 mL) were obtained just before injection and at 2 and 5 hours and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after injection. In each group, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were obtained before injection and after 1 month.
The half-lives of vancomycin in the aqueous humor of normal, vitrectomized, and silicone oil-filled eyes were 29.4, 21.1, and 6.8 hours, respectively, and those of ceftazidime were 20.4, 5.2, and 3.1 hours, respectively. The maximum vancomycin aqueous humor concentrations of normal, vitrectomized, and silicone oil-filled eyes were 151.4, 205.6, and 543.5 µg/mL, respectively, and the maximum ceftazidime aqueous humor concentrations are 64.6, 260.0, and 1176.3 µg/mL, respectively. There was no change in ECD, and ERG was not declined after intravitreal injection in all groups.
The half-lives of vancomycin and ceftazidime in the aqueous humor were shorter in silicone oil-filled eyes than in normal and vitrectomized eyes. High antibiotic concentrations in silicone oil-filled eyes seemed to be well tolerated.
This study aids in estimating how often an antibiotic should be intravitreally injected for endophthalmitis of silicone oil-filled eyes.
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