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Rwituja Thomas, Anand Vinekar, Shwetha Mangalesh, Thirumalesh Basavaraj Mochi, Puja Sarbajna, Bhujang Shetty; Evaluating Contrast Sensitivity in Asian Indian Pre-Term Infants With and Without Retinopathy of Prematurity. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2021;10(4):12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.4.12.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contrast threshold in Asian Indian preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using Newborn Contrast Cards measured during the first ROP screening and to correlate with final outcome and visual acuity at 3 months of corrected age.
Preterm infants born ≤ 2000 grams birth weight (BW) and/or ≤ 34 weeks gestational age (GA) undergoing ROP screening were enrolled prospectively. Visual acuity was recorded using Teller Acuity Cards. Contrast threshold was measured with Newborn Contrast Cards at first screening visit and at the end of ROP screening at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age or older.
Of the 173 study infants, 134 (77.5%) did not have any stage of ROP. Of the remaining 39 (22.5%), 34 (87%) had type 2 ROP and 5 (13%) had type 1 ROP requiring treatment. The mean contrast threshold at the first visit of the no ROP type 1 and type 2 groups was 0.36 ± 0.07, 0.65 ± 0.19, and 0.46 ± 0.09, respectively (P < 0.001). Contrast threshold had a significant correlation with BW (R = −0.291, P = < 0.001) and gestational age (R = −0.47, P = < 0.001). The contrast threshold at the first visit correlated with visual acuity measured at 3 months of corrected age in logMAR (R = 0.36, P = 0.01). Other than BW and GA, no other systemic risk factors correlated with contrast threshold measured at the first screening visit.
Newborn Contrast Cards are a viable tool to test contrast threshold in preterm infants. The association between contrast threshold and ROP, and its correlation with visual acuity, suggest that contrast threshold measurement may help predict the clinical vision outcome among prematurely born infants.
Contrast threshold measurement may prove to be a useful tool in the estimation of visual potential in preterm infants.
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