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Louise A. Mesentier-Louro, Laurel Stell, Yan Yan, Artis A. Montague, Vinicio de Jesus Perez, Yaping Joyce Liao; Immunoprofiling of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2021;10(8):17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.8.17.
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Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a common acute optic neuropathy in those older than 50 years. There is no blood diagnostic test or efficient treatment for NAION. We investigated the suitability of blood inflammatory proteins as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of NAION.
We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional case-control study including 18 patients with NAION (n = 5 acute, and n = 13 chronic) and 9 controls. NAION was confirmed by clinical examination and optical coherence tomography. Subjects underwent peripheral blood collection; plasma was isolated within 2 hours and analyzed using a 76-plex array of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.
In acute NAION, there was increased peripapillary retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography consistent with optic disc edema. Plasma profiling revealed dramatic changes in inflammatory proteins in NAION. Statistical analysis generated a list of 20 top-ranked molecules in NAION, with 15% overlap in acute and chronic NAION. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Spearman correlation generally segregated controls, acute and chronic NAION, with some overlap. Longitudinal data from one patient demonstrated an evolving inflammatory pattern from acute to chronic NAION. In acute NAION, Eotaxin-3, MCP-2, TPO, and TRAIL were the top biomarker candidates. In chronic NAION, IL-1α and CXCL10 emerged as the strongest therapeutic targets.
Post-NAION inflammation occurs in both acute and chronic NAION. Statistical analysis of plasma profile changes generated a list of 20 potential biomarker and therapeutic targets of NAION.
We identified blood molecular targets to improve NAION diagnosis and treatment.
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