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Hassan D. Alli, Naseer Ally, Ismail Mayet, Lavania Joseph, Shaheed V. Omar, Shabir A. Madhi; Tubercular Uveitis in Uveitis Cases in a High TB and HIV Setting: A Prospective Cohort Study. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2022;11(1):9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.1.9.
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The diagnosis of tubercular uveitis (TBU) is difficult. The lack of a diagnostic gold standard has contributed to challenges in determining the true prevalence and clinical predictors of TBU. We aimed to determine the proportion of TBU cases in adults with uveitis and to examine clinical features associated with TBU.
A prospective cohort study of adult uveitis cases after exclusion of other specific etiologies. The diagnosis of TBU was based on a composite reference of: any clinical signs of uveitis; exclusion of other causes of uveitis; and positive QuantiFERON-Gold test, tuberculin skin test, and/or ocular TB polymerase chain reaction.
Of 79 cases analyzed, 49 (62%) had TBU. Female sex (P = 0.001) and chronic uveitis (P = 0.006) cases were more common in the TBU group than the non-TBU group whereas diffuse choroiditis (P = 0.010) and HIV-positive (P = 0.001) cases were less common. Choroidal granulomas (P = 0.176) and serpiginous-like choroiditis (P = 0.292) were more common in TBU group, albeit not significantly. On univariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, 5.1; P = 0.002), negative HIV status (odds ratio, 0.2; P = 0.001), and chronic uveitis (odds ratio, 4.1; P = 0.008) were associated with TBU. A negative HIV test was associated with TBU on multivariate analysis (P = 0.049).
A high proportion of cases had TBU. Our study did not significantly confirm some of the clinical features associated with TBU reported in other studies.
Our study highlights the difficulties in determining the proportion and clinical predictors of TBU, especially in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test.
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