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Li-Fong Seet, Zhu Li Yap, Stephanie W. L. Chu, Li Zhen Toh, Farah Ilyana Ibrahim, Xiao Teng, Tina T. Wong; Effects of Valproic Acid and Mitomycin C Combination Therapy in a Rabbit Model of Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2022;11(1):30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.1.30.
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This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of combination therapy consisting of low-dose mitomycin C (MMC) and valproic acid (VPA) against high-dose MMC for improving the scar phenotype in minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS).
A rabbit model of MIGS incorporating the PreserFlo MicroShunt was treated with high (0.4 mg/mL) or low (0.1 mg/mL) doses of MMC or with combination therapy consisting of low-dose (0.1 mg/mL) MMC and VPA. Operated eyes were examined by live ocular imaging, histochemical evaluation, multiphoton quantitation of collagen characteristics, and molecular analyses.
Although high-dose MMC obliterated the vasculature, combination therapy vastly improved the postoperative tissue morphology by maintaining the vasculature without increased vascularization. Combination therapy also altered collagen morphology and reduced encapsulation of the MicroShunt distal end, which remained at risk with MMC treatment alone. Multiphoton quantitation indicated that the combination therapy significantly reduced collagen density and fiber dimensions compared with monotherapy. At the molecular level, combination therapy significantly reduced Vegfa, Vegfc, and Vegfd expression and inhibited Col1a1 upregulation from baseline levels, all of which low-dose MMC alone was unable to achieve. Notably, COL1A1 protein levels appeared more consistently suppressed by combination therapy compared with high-dose MMC alone.
Compared with high-dose MMC, combination therapy was less toxic by sparing the vasculature and potentially more effective in reducing scarring via the regulation of collagen content and organization.
VPA may be combined with low-dose MMC to replace high-dose MMC to deliver safe and effective anti-scarring outcomes.
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