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Mariana Flores Pimentel, Anna Heath, Michael J. Wan, Rowaida Hussein, Kate E. Leahy, Heather MacDonald, Erika Tavares, Cynthia VandenHoven, Katelyn MacNeill, Peter Kannu, Patricia C. Parkin, Elise Heon, Arun Reginald, Ajoy Vincent; Prevalence of Choroidal Abnormalities and Lisch Nodules in Children Meeting Clinical and Molecular Diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis Type 1. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2022;11(2):10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.2.10.
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To determine the prevalence of choroidal abnormalities (CAs) and Lisch nodules (LNs) in children who met the clinical diagnostic criteria (CDC) alone and those with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis (MCD) of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and to ascertain any differences between the groups.
This was a cross-sectional observational study. All children who met the CDC and/or had MCD of NF1 and underwent eye examination were included. At least two CAs or LNs between the two eyes were set as a threshold to define the presence of either abnormality. Frequencies alongside 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The relationship between patient age and the presence of LNs and/or CAs was estimated using logistic regression.
The study cohort included 94 patients; CAs (64%) were more prevalent than LNs (41%) (0.22; 95% CI, 0.08–0.36; P = 0.0023). The probability of the presence of LNs was lower than that of CAs across all ages (odds ratio = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.20–0.69; P = 0.00173). CAs were exclusively found in 37% of patients and LNs in 16%; 80% had either CAs or LNs, or both. In the CDC group (n = 41), the difference in prevalence (CAs = 68%, LNs = 51%) did not attain statistical significance (0.17; 95% CI, −0.06 to 0.40; P = 0.18). In the MCD group (n = 53), the difference in prevalence (CAs = 60%, LNs = 34%) was significant (0.26; 95% CI, 0.006–0.47; P = 0.023).
CAs were more frequent than LNs in pediatric NF1 patients regardless of age and MCD status. Combining ophthalmological exams with near-infrared imaging will increase the diagnostic reach in pediatric NF1.
CAs detected on near-infrared imaging are objective biomarkers in NF1. They are more prevalent and detected earlier in the pediatric population compared with LNs. Hence, the presence of CAs should be routinely ascertained in children suspected with NF1.
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