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Peng Li, Jia Liu; Early Diagnosis and Quantitative Analysis of Stages in Retinopathy of Prematurity Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2022;11(5):17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.5.17.
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Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness. An accurate and timely diagnosis of the early stages of ROP allows ophthalmologists to recommend appropriate treatment while blindness is still preventable. The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic deep convolutional neural network–based system that provided a diagnosis of stage I to III ROP with feature parameters.
We developed three data sets containing 18,827 retinal images of preterm infants. These retinal images were obtained from the ophthalmology department of Jiaxing Maternal and Child Health Hospital in China. After segmenting images, we calculated the region of interest (ROI). We trained our system based on segmented ROI images from the training data set, tested the performance of the classifier on the test data set, and evaluated the widths of the demarcation lines or ridges extracted by the system, as well as the ratios of vascular proliferation within the ROI on a comparison data set.
The trained network achieved a sensitivity of 90.21% with 97.67% specificity for the diagnosis of stage I ROP, 92.75% sensitivity with 98.74% specificity for stage II ROP, and 91.84% sensitivity with 99.29% sensitivity for stage III ROP. When the system diagnosed normal images, the sensitivity and specificity reached 95.93% and 96.41%, respectively. The widths (in pixels) of the demarcation lines or ridges for normal, stage I, stage II, and stage III were 15.22 ± 1.06, 26.35 ± 1.36, and 30.75 ± 1.55. The ratios of the vascular proliferation within the ROI were 1.40 ± 0.29, 1.54 ± 0.26, and 1.81 ± 0.33. All parameters were statistically different among the groups. When physicians integrated quantitative parameters of the extracted features with their clinic diagnosis, the κ score was significantly improved.
Our system achieved a high accuracy of diagnosis for stage I to III ROP. It used the quantitative analysis of the extracted features to assist physicians in providing classification decisions.
The high performance of the system suggests potential applications in ancillary diagnosis of the early stages of ROP.
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