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Ruben Hemelings, Bart Elen, João Barbosa-Breda, Erwin Bellon, Matthew B. Blaschko, Patrick De Boever, Ingeborg Stalmans; Pointwise Visual Field Estimation From Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma Using Deep Learning. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2022;11(8):22. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.8.22.
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Standard automated perimetry is the gold standard to monitor visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma management, but it is prone to intrasubject variability. We trained and validated a customized deep learning (DL) regression model with Xception backbone that estimates pointwise and overall VF sensitivity from unsegmented optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans.
DL regression models have been trained with four imaging modalities (circumpapillary OCT at 3.5 mm, 4.1 mm, and 4.7 mm diameter) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy en face images to estimate mean deviation (MD) and 52 threshold values. This retrospective study used data from patients who underwent a complete glaucoma examination, including a reliable Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 24-2 SITA Standard (SS) VF exam and a SPECTRALIS OCT.
For MD estimation, weighted prediction averaging of all four individuals yielded a mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.89 dB (2.50–3.30) on 186 test images, reducing the baseline by 54% (MAEdecr%). For 52 VF threshold values’ estimation, the weighted ensemble model resulted in an MAE of 4.82 dB (4.45–5.22), representing an MAEdecr% of 38% from baseline when predicting the pointwise mean value. DL managed to explain 75% and 58% of the variance (R2) in MD and pointwise sensitivity estimation, respectively.
Deep learning can estimate global and pointwise VF sensitivities that fall almost entirely within the 90% test–retest confidence intervals of the 24-2 SS test.
Fast and consistent VF prediction from unsegmented OCT scans could become a solution for visual function estimation in patients unable to perform reliable VF exams.
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