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Alexandre H. Thiéry, Fabian Braeu, Tin A. Tun, Tin Aung, Michaël J. A. Girard; Medical Application of Geometric Deep Learning for the Diagnosis of Glaucoma. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2023;12(2):23. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.12.2.23.
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(1) To assess the performance of geometric deep learning in diagnosing glaucoma from a single optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan of the optic nerve head and (2) to compare its performance to that obtained with a three-dimensional (3D) convolutional neural network (CNN), and with a gold-standard parameter, namely, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.
Scans of the optic nerve head were acquired with OCT for 477 glaucoma and 2296 nonglaucoma subjects. All volumes were automatically segmented using deep learning to identify seven major neural and connective tissues. Each optic nerve head was then represented as a 3D point cloud with approximately 1000 points. Geometric deep learning (PointNet) was then used to provide a glaucoma diagnosis from a single 3D point cloud. The performance of our approach (reported using the area under the curve [AUC]) was compared with that obtained with a 3D CNN, and with the RNFL thickness.
PointNet was able to provide a robust glaucoma diagnosis solely from a 3D point cloud (AUC = 0.95 ± 0.01).The performance of PointNet was superior to that obtained with a 3D CNN (AUC = 0.87 ± 0.02 [raw OCT images] and 0.91 ± 0.02 [segmented OCT images]) and with that obtained from RNFL thickness alone (AUC = 0.80 ± 0.03).
We provide a proof of principle for the application of geometric deep learning in glaucoma. Our technique requires significantly less information as input to perform better than a 3D CNN, and with an AUC superior to that obtained from RNFL thickness.
Geometric deep learning may help us to improve and simplify diagnosis and prognosis applications in glaucoma.
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