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Joo-Hee Park, Choul Yong Park; Effects of In Vitro Combination of Nitric Oxide Donors and Hypochlorite on Acanthamoeba castellanii Viability. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2023;12(9):23. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.12.9.23.
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To investigate the combined anti-Acanthamoeba effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors and hypochlorite to maximize amoebicidal outcomes while minimizing damage to human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs).
Acanthamoeba castellanii and primary cultured HCECs and keratocytes were treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), NO donors (sodium nitroprusside [SNP] and sodium nitrite [NaNO2]), or a combination of hypochlorite and NO donors. The viability of A. castellanii, HCECs, and keratocytes was assessed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration of NaOCl and NO donors were determined. The activation of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK and the expression of nitrite reductase and Nrf2 were assessed in HCECs using Western blot analysis. The cysticidal effects of combined NaOCl and NO donors were also evaluated.
A dose-dependent toxicity was observed in A. castellanii, HCECs, and keratocytes when treated with NaOCl and SNP. The range of tested NaNO2 concentrations showed no significant toxicity to HCECs; however, dose-dependent toxicity to A. castellanii was observed. The MIC of NaOCl against HCECs and A. castellanii was 8.0 mg/mL. The MIC of NaNO2 and SNP was 500 mM and 10 mM in both HCECs and A. castellanii, respectively. Weak attenuation of the mTOR and ERK phosphorylation was observed and Nrf2 expression decreased slightly after exposure of HCECs to 2.0 mg/mL NaOCl. For the combination treatment, NaOCl (0.125 mg/mL) was selected based on the safety of HCECs and the toxicity of A. castellanii. A more potent anti-Acanthamoeba effect and HCEC toxicity were observed when NaOCl was combined with SNP rather than NaNO2.
Combined NaOCl and NO donors had a stronger anti-Acanthamoeba effect compared to either drug alone.
This study demonstrates that the combined use of various drugs for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection can enhance the anti-Acanthamoeba effect while minimizing the toxicity of the individual drug.
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