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Tianjiao Zhen, Ya Li, Qingge Guo, Shun Yao, Ya You, Bo Lei; Pathogenicity and Function Analysis of Two Novel SLC4A11 Variants in Patients With Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy. Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 2023;12(10):1. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.12.10.1.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the pathogenicity and function of two novel SLC4A11 variants associated with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and to study the function of a SLC4A11 (K263R) mutant in vitro.
Ophthalmic examinations were performed on a 28-year-old male proband with CHED. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing were applied for mutation screening. Bioinformatics and pathogenicity analysis were performed. HEK293T cells were transfected with the plasmids of empty vector, wild-type SLC4A11, and SLC4A11 (K263R) mutant. The transfected cells were treated with SkQ1. Oxygen consumption, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis rate were measured.
The proband had poor visual acuity with nystagmus since childhood. Corneal foggy opacity was evident in both eyes. Two novel SLC4A11 variants were detected. Sanger sequencing showed that the proband's father and sister carried c.1464-1G>T variant, and the proband's mother and sister carried c.788A>G (p.Lys263Arg) variant. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) guidelines, SLC4A11 c.1464-1G>T was pathogenic, whereas c.788A>G, p.K263R was a variant of undetermined significance. In vitro, SLC4A11 (K263R) variant increased ROS level and apoptosis rate. Decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate were remarkable. Furthermore, SkQ1 decreased ROS levels and apoptosis rate but increased mitochondrial membrane potential in the transfected cells.
Two novel heterozygous pathogenic variants of the SLC4A11 gene were identified in a family with CHED. The missense variant SLC4A11 (K263R) caused mitochondrial dysfunction and increased apoptosis in mutant transfected cells. In addition, SkQ1 presented a protective effect suggesting the anti-oxidant might be a novel therapeutic drug.
This study verified the pathogenicity of 2 novel variants in the SLC4A11 gene in a CHED family and found an anti-oxidant might be a new drug.
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