TVST Online Submission Instructions for Authors

Translational Vision Science & Technology (TVST), an official journal of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), an international organization whose purpose is to advance research worldwide into understanding the visual system and preventing, treating and curing its disorders, is an online-only, peer-reviewed journal emphasizing multidisciplinary research that bridges the gap between basic research and clinical care.


  • The conceptualization of translational research has expanded since the inception of Translational Vision Science and Technology (TVST).
  • The expanded scope of translational research necessitates that we likewise expand the scope of the journal.
  • TVST will publish work that fits into phases T1 through T4 translational research. Some examples are as follows:
    • T1: Development and validation of animal models, preclinical drug studies, development of clinically relevant technologies, and phase 1 and 2 clinical studies (“bench to bedside” research).
    • T2: Phase 3 clinical trials (including comparative effectiveness trials), phase 4 clinical research, and development of clinical guidelines (“bedside to practice” research).
    • T3: Research focused on implementation and dissemination of phase 3 and 4 clinical research results (dissemination and implementation research).
    • T4: Research focused on outcomes and effectiveness in populations, including assessment of benefit to communities through public health policies and programs, as well as adoption of proven interventions’ best practices in communities (diffusion research), and cost-benefit analyses.
  • This classification scheme is best conceived as a continuum, a natural progression of investigative activity, rather than as a series of clearly defined categories.
  • As a result of the change in scope, the number and diversity of publications accepted by the journal is likely to increase compared with past years.
  • ARVO's commitment to this expanded scope will enable TVST to better represent the diversity of research that is already represented in platform and poster presentations at the annual ARVO meeting.
  • This scope change will enable ARVO to represent the interests of its members and to advance the development and assessment of treatments for blinding diseases worldwide.

*For a more detailed description and discussion please see Marco Zarbin's editorial at TVST 2020;9(8):22.

Short updates on new developments and controversies will be published by invitation. TVST encourages the use of color, multimedia, hyperlinks, program code and other digital enhancements. TVST will utilize and take advantage of every technological innovation afforded by digital data management to optimize TVST’s computer-based reading experience.

Manuscripts from scientists and clinicians with diverse backgrounds ranging from basic chemistry to ophthalmic surgery, bringing together research that, until now, often has been published in journals other than those related to ophthalmology, are welcome.

Should I Submit My Paper to IOVS or TVST?

As many realize, the difference in scope between IOVS and TVST is more nuanced than simply "basic" vs. "clinical." To aid authors in deciding for which journal their manuscripts are best suited, we endeavor to provide examples of the types of studies that would best fit in one versus the other. We are asking that authors consider this guidance on scope and carefully choose what they determine to be the best for their manuscript.

Choose TVST if…
-The purpose of your study is to develop and/or validate a clinical biomarker.
-Your study is reporting results from a registered clinical trial (though results from a thorough natural history study that advance understanding of disease process/mechanism would also fit in IOVS).
-Your study is focused on outcomes and effectiveness in populations.
-Your study aims to develop clinical guidelines or relates to the detection, diagnosis, or management of disease.
-Your study describes the development or validation of an animal/tissue/cell model.
-You are depositing a dataset or software paper as part of the Data Science section.

Choose IOVS if…
-Your study is on a clinical or normative population AND advances fundamental understanding of visual system structure and/or function.
-Your study provides insight into disease mechanism (including characterizing structure-function relationships).
-Your study elucidates genotype-phenotype correlations or identifies novel genetic causes of eye disease.
-Your study uses an animal/tissue/cell model to gain insight on normal ocular physiology, biochemical processes, disease mechanism, etc.

Some of the more confusing submissions deal with technology development. If your study develops a new device or method (hardware or software) and the purpose is simply to demonstrate proof of concept or illustrate clinical utility, this would best fit within TVST's scope. However, if you develop a method and use it to elucidate disease mechanisms or advance the understanding of visual system structure and/or function, this would fall within the IOVS scope.

Ultimately, we recognize authors have a choice in where you publish your work and appreciate you considering an ARVO journal. Classical issues like readership are less critical today, given that all articles in IOVS and TVST are open access.

If you have questions about whether your manuscript is within the scope of TVST, please email Dr. Roy Chuck at with your pre-submission enquiry.


New manuscripts should be submitted to

Users are advised to first check the database to verify and update, if necessary, the existence of a previous record. Users creating new records will be asked to enter key words and terms which accurately describe their area(s) of expertise. Membership of ARVO is not a prerequisite for manuscript submission.



Articles present new data in one or more areas of vision research and are written concisely for a broad rather than a highly specialized audience. To be considered for publication, papers that are merely descriptions of new methods must be exceptional contributions, with implications extending beyond the particular applied area. Summaries of meetings/symposia are considered only under special circumstances and only after prior approval of the EIC. Case reports and obituaries are not considered.

Authors are asked to select the section code that best suits their research area: Artificial Intelligence; Cornea & External Disease; Glaucoma; Lacrimal Apparatus, Eyelids, Orbit; Lens; Low Vision Rehabilitation; Neuro-ophthalmology; Ocular Oncology; Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus; Refractive Intervention; Retina; Telemedicine; Uveitis. The sections are used to organize published articles by subject area in the Table of Contents.

Data Science descriptor articles provide an introduction to and complete description of data sets or software libraries, as well as access to them via links to open access repositories. For a detailed description, please see the Editorial Data Science in Translational Vision Science and Technology. For now, the publication fee for Data Science descriptor articles will be a reduced $300.

  • Format for data set papers
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
      • Clinical setting or experimental conditions from which data set was created
    • Methods
      • Extraction method used
      • Validation methods used
      • Inclusion / Exclusion criteria
      • Public repository DOI link
    • Data Summary
      • Open source license
      • Demographics table describing study population
    • Technical Validation
      • Results of manual validation of data accuracy and integrity
    • Discussion
      • Potential uses for the dataset
      • Comparison with other public datasets and harmonization with data dictionaries of similar work
    • Data Repository
      • Checksum for data, algorithm and results
      • Documentation on how data can be extracted, parsed, and used
      • Data dictionary (add links to exemplary data dictionaries)
        • Variable type (int, string, float)
        • Variable coded values (eg 0 = Male, 1 = Female)
        • Data consistency (code for missing values)
      • Data is stored in an open format
        • For tabular data: CSV, Tab delimited files
        • For text data: JSON, YAML
        • For images: PNG
        • For binary data: HD5
          • Require reader and writer to be released with HD5
    • References
  • Format for software papers
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
      • Clinical or research need addressed by software package / libraries
    • Methods
      • Open source languages
      • Development / software iteration cycles
      • Intended input format
      • How external usability of library was assessed
    • Software Summary
      • Open source license
      • Generated outputs from software library
      • Comparison with other open source tools as a baseline comparison
      • External usability results
      • Submission to package registry (pip, gems, CRAN, CPAN, etc.)
    • Discussion
      • Potential uses for the software
      • Limitations of the software
    • Software Repository
      • Open source license must be present
      • Documentation must be present to describe how to use the software library and its functions (arguments, return values)
      • Examples should be given
      • Link to accepted article once published
    • References


Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication relevant to material published in TVST. Letters about material published in TVST may correct errors; provide support or agreement; and offer different points of view, clarification, or additional information. Letters will be reviewed and the author(s) whose article is discussed in a Letter will be given an opportunity to reply.

Methods are articles describing substantial advances rather than incremental improvements in existing methods pertaining to translational research (e.g., new transgenic animal model, new imaging modality, new method for assaying biomarkers). The methods described should serve a broad or important purpose within translational vision science. We encourage submission of supplementary materials, such as computer code or online demonstrations that implement or demonstrate the methods. Articles that primarily report new data or theory should not be submitted to the Methods section. Any commercial interest by an author in the methods described should be clearly stated in the cover letter and in the acknowledgments. Commercial interests are not a bar but they may be considered during review for publication.

New Developments in Vision Research are solicited short reviews of new research findings or new general methodologies that are of broad interest to the ophthalmic and vision research community.

Point/CounterPoint are 2 invited articles with opposing views on a specific current topic. The articles will be peer-reviewed. Each article should be 2-3 pages (final PDF pages). Pages charges are waived.

Perspectives are personal viewpoints on topics with broad interest (mini-editorial). Articles will be peer-reviewed. They may be up to 4 pages (final PDF pages), including artwork and tables. If unsolicited, page charges will apply. If solicited, page charges are waived.

Reviews are meant to sum up the current state of the research on an important topic and are regarded as being the first place to get authoritative information about that topic. They should contain new insights on the topic or provide a new synthesis of data.

Review articles should inform the reader about:

  • The main contributors to the field
  • Recent major advances and discoveries
  • Significant gaps in knowledge
  • Current debates in the area
  • Ideas of where research might go next
Please consider the following issues when writing the manuscript:
  • Make sure the review is up to date.
  • Consideration of the topic should be comprehensive.
  • The review should contain new insights or provide a new synthesis of data.
  • The discussion should be fair and balanced in both the work cited and the presentation of conclusions. It should also be free of commercial bias.
  • Recommendations for future research should be realistic and innovative.
  • Preferably, the title should catch the reader's attention and be clearly focused on the subject of the review.
  • The figures should be clear and aid the reader in understanding the topic.
  • The review must highlight and critically analyze the appropriate references, especially those of other laboratories.

Overall, the review should significantly advance understanding by providing new insights and perspectives, not just be a summary of the literature.



  1. Prior Publication/Duplicate Submission

    All submissions must be original. Manuscripts are subjected to iThenticate plagiarism detection analysis prior to review. Manuscripts will not be considered that have been previously published, in full, or in part, in any format, except as an abstract, academic thesis, or in draft form on a non-peer reviewed preprint server. Authors are required upon submission of their manuscript to disclose the existence of any such prior versions of their work, and to ensure that ARVO publishing policies are not in conflict with those of the repository of the original work. An author may submit a manuscript that is part of his or her published thesis, provided that it has been published only as a thesis, and not as part of another journal article. Manuscripts that are currently under review with other journals may not be submitted. Authors must update any postings to a preprint server with the journal published version, as soon as it is available, and provide an appropriate link on the archive site to the copy on the journal website. Authors further agree not to post further updated versions beyond the journal published version. Published conference proceedings articles are not suitable for republication in ARVO journals.

    If a manuscript is suspected of being a duplicate submission, i.e., already under consideration at another journal, the review will be halted and the scientific editor of the other journal will be contacted. If it is confirmed that the manuscript is a duplicate submission, the manuscript will be rejected. Depending on the specific situation, the Editor-in-Chief may then refer the case to the ARVO Publications Committee to determine whether the corresponding author should be banned from submitting to the ARVO journals for two years (as either a corresponding author or a contributing author), and whether their institution should be contacted. Banned authors may appeal to the ARVO Board of Trustees.

  2. License to Publish/Open Access

    ARVO deposits all articles indicated as funded by NIH, HHMI, and Wellcome Trust in PubMed Central on behalf of authors.

    TVST is now open access, beginning with articles published Jan. 2016. Authors retain copyright of their articles instead of signing it over to ARVO. Each author must complete a License to Publish (a link to their individual form will be emailed to each author after submission). This license grants ARVO permission, among other things, to publish and distribute the article. Authors will also need to indicate on the form if they are making their article open access under the CC BY-NC-ND or the CC BY license. (We will consider the corresponding author's license selection the official choice if there are any discrepancies among the authors.) For more information about open access, click here.

    The Wellcome Trust, as well as some other funders, require authors to select the CC BY license. Please check with your funder for any requirements regarding open access licenses.

    Please note that only the CC BY-NC-ND license may be applied to Letters to the Editor and Author Responses, which currently do not have any publication fees. The CC BY license is not an option for Letters and Responses.

  3. Permissions

    If you plan to include figures, photographs, or tables from other publications, obtain written permission from the copyright holder to reprint such items in TVST, and submit this permission to the Editorial Office.

Other Policies

  1. Authorship

    The decision on who to include as an author should be discussed and agreed upon prior to the initial submission. For guidelines regarding authorship, please see the ARVO Publications Ethics Statement. If at any time during the peer review process there is a change to the authorship listing, then authors must complete a Change of Authorship form. When removing an author, only the author being removed can make this request and they should also submit a signed letter requesting removal along with this form. Authorship removal requests made by the corresponding author, or other coauthors on the manuscript, are not acceptable.

  2. Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research

    If experimental animals were used in the research, TVST requires that authors confirm adherence to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research in the Methods section of their manuscript.

  3. Human Subjects

    For research involving human subjects, the ARVO journals require that authors state in the Methods section of their manuscript that their research was conducted in compliance with a suitable accredited Institutional Review Board (IRB) or its equivalent (such as a human ethics committee).

  4. Publishing data derived from human eye tissues or cells

    Based on ARVO's Best Practices for Using Human Eye Tissue in Research, we require authors to provide (where available/relevant) the following information when publishing data derived from human eye tissues or cells in TVST. This information should be provided in the Methods section of the manuscript. If the information is not available, then it should be stated in the Methods as to why not available.

    Any publication of the data included should state where the information is gathered, such as from family interviews, eye bank records, or patient medical records (which can help the reader and reviewers assess issues of accuracy). The publication should include an explanation of why any of the minimum information is not available.

    Minimum information to be included:

    • Age, sex, and other readily available or relevant demographic information (i.e. race/ethnicity of donor)
    • Source of the tissue or cells (Examples: Eye bank or other repository, surgical discard, medical examiner, etc.)
    • Time interval from death to preservation
    • Time interval from death to receipt (or initiation of experiment)
    • Method of preservation (Examples: ice, fixation, etc.)
    • Cause of death
    • Statement on the ethical approval or exemption of use of human tissue
    • Inclusion of the following statement in the manuscript: "The human tissue experiments complied with the guidelines of the ARVO Best Practices for Using Human Eye Tissue in Research (Nov2021)."

    Additional information as appropriate:

    • Donor history of ocular disease, or systemic disease
    • Ocular disease noted from evaluation of tissue
    • Medication list relevant to ocular health (Examples: eye drops, diabetes medications,chemotherapy, intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF medication, supplement use, etc.)
    • Prior ocular surgery (Examples: scleral buckle, trabeculectomy, corneal refractive surgery, etc.)
    • Co-morbidities
    • Reason for enucleation, if obtained via surgeon/pathologist
    • Time on ventilator (if relevant)
  5. Guidelines for Manuscripts in the Genetics Section

    Descriptions of novel associations between genes and ophthalmic diseases
    Manuscripts that describe the results of studies investigating novel associations between genetic variants and disease are of interest. Editors and reviewers will consider sample size and statistical approaches when evaluating the significance of the observed results. Reviewers or editors of such studies may ask for replication in a second population, demonstration of biological activity or proposed biological function related to the sequence variant(s) showing association, and/or additional measures of significance, such as smaller p values for association that approach the genome significance levels of 1 x 10-7.

    Confirmation of reports of genetic variants recently or rarely associated with ophthalmic disease
    Manuscripts confirming novel genetic associations are of interest, and those that confirm previous associations and refine or further define the genetic relevance to ocular disease are of special interest. Manuscripts that do not confirm a previously published association will only be considered when the power of the study is sufficient to conclusively identify a positive association, had it existed.

    Screening new populations for genetic variants known to be associated with disease
    Manuscripts describing results of population screening for genetic variants known to be associated with disease are of interest if screening the population provides new insight into disease mechanisms, disease prevalence, or other aspects of the epidemiology of the condition. Editors and reviewers will consider the number of subjects screened, the population demographics, and previously published studies.

    Molecular or clinical studies that demonstrate disease mechanisms related to genetic variants associated with ophthalmic disease
    Manuscripts describing cellular, biochemical, or molecular mechanisms of diseases that have genetic etiologies are of interest.

    New mutation reports
    Mutations in previously identified genes that are not associated with novel clinical phenotypes, do not establish new and significant genotype-phenotype correlations, or do not provide new insight into disease mechanisms will be returned to the authors without review.

  6. ARVO Commercial Relationships Policy

    It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to assure that each co-author is aware of the ARVO Commercial Relationships Policy. For each author, please list all organizations that they have a commercial relationship with, relevant to the current manuscript, and the codes that apply. If there are no commercial relationships, list "None."
    A.B Anderson, Alcon (C), Allergan (C, F), Optovue (F); J.R. Jones, None; C. Smith, Carl Zeiss Meditec (F), Heidelberg Engineering (F, R); A. Rodriguez, None

  7. Clinical Trials Registration

    TVST will not consider articles dealing with clinical trials that were not registered before the first subject was enrolled. Please include the following information in a cover letter: (1) beginning date of the trial, (2) date of registration, (3) trial registration number, and (4) registration site.

    Registration must be done on a publicly available database. ICMJE-recognized registries are: (Australia) (China) (US) (EU) (India) (Germany) (Brazil) (Iran) (UK) (Republic of Korea) (Cuba) (Japan) asp (Netherlands)

    For the purposes of this policy, a "clinical trial" consists of any study involving a new therapy of any kind, whether medical, surgical, psychological or sociological, in which subjects are concurrently divided into one or more treatment or control groups. Several treatments may be compared simultaneously, or one or more treatment groups may be compared to a simultaneous, untreated control group. Although the division into such groups in most such trials is presently by random assignment, randomization is not a part of the requirement for registration but only the evaluation, in the trial, of concurrent control groups. The size of a clinical trial is not a relevant consideration as to whether it must be registered. This policy applies not only to large, multi-institutional clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies or other organizations, but also to individual investigators at a single institution who are conducting their own trials. The only consideration is whether the trial is comparing an experimental therapy, or therapies with a simultaneous control group, or groups.

    Click here for more complete guidelines and here for FAQ.

  8. Consent for Use of Identifying Material

    Authors must obtain consent from subjects to use any identifiable material, e.g., a photograph of a subject’s face, and forward that consent to the Editorial Office at submission. When the subject is a minor child, consent must be obtained from the parent or guardian. Authors should upload the consent form as a Cover Letter file or email it to Contact the Editorial Office if a blank consent form is needed.

  9. Ethics

    Please see the ARVO Publications Ethics Statement for more information on ethics guidelines. TVST is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  10. ARVO Artificial Intelligence Policy

    This policy covers the use of generative artificial intelligence (AI) technologies such as Large Language Models (e.g., ChatGPT, GPT-4, Dolly) and text-to-image generators (e.g., DALL-E 2, DeepAI) for manuscripts submitted to ARVO journals (IOVS, JOV, or TVST).

    Use of AI by Authors
    A generative AI technology cannot be listed as a co-author or author of any submitted manuscript.

    If the author of a submitted manuscript has used any content (text or imagery) produced and/or edited with a generative AI technology, this must be disclosed (i.e., acknowledged in the acknowledgments section and/or the methods section as appropriate). The disclosure should include the name, version, model, and source of the generative AI technology as well as the date the content was created and/or edited. Additionally, the author is responsible for checking the accuracy of any content created by the generative AI technology (including references and any code). Authors are also responsible to check that any content produced and/or edited with a generative AI technology is free from plagiarism. Submission of work containing plagiarized content resulting from use of a generative AI technology is considered ethical misconduct and would subject the authors to the consequences outlined in the ARVO Publications Ethics Statement.

    Use of AI by Reviewers and Editors
    Consistent with NIH policy NOT-OD-23-149, reviewers and editors are prohibited from using AI tools when conducting peer review of unpublished work.

Publication Costs

There are no costs for submission. The publication fee, charged only for accepted manuscripts, is $1,950. If the corresponding author is an ARVO member at the time of acceptance, a $350 discount will be applied. Amounts are in US dollars and were set by the ARVO Board of Trustees. ARVO sends out requests for payment of the fee (APC) after the manuscript is sent to the production team. In the very unlikely event that an accepted article does not end up getting published after payment was made, a full refund will be provided. The fee is currently a reduced $300 for Data Science descriptor articles and not charged for Letters to the Editor or Author Responses to Letters.(Articles submitted for review before Jan. 1, 2024 will be invoiced at the previous rate of $1,850 with a $350 discount for ARVO membership.) 

Authors without funding may apply for financial assistance through the ARVO Publication Financial Assistance Program (PFAP), which covers the full cost of an article. For more information, please see the ARVO website. Authors must wait for notification of the outcome of their PFAP application before submitting an article to TVST. Articles already accepted for publication and in production are not eligible.

Manuscript Preparation

Structure: the main manuscript document should be organized as follows:
a. Title Page
b. Structured Abstract: 250-word limit
c. Text
d. Acknowledgments
e. References
f. Figure legends, tables, and figures, if not embedded in text
Lines and pages should be numbered.

  1. Title Page

    The title page, which must be part of the main manuscript file, should include the title, authors' full names and institutions, word count, funding information, and commercial relationships disclosures. The title must contain no more than 150 characters, including punctuation and spaces. For guidelines regarding authorship, please see the ARVO Publications Ethics Statement.

  2. Structured abstract

    A structured abstract of fewer than 250 words is required for articles and should be arranged under the following headings: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, Translational Relevance (a one-sentence description of how your work bridges the gap between basic research and clinical care). Define abbreviations at first mention, and do not include references. The abstract must be included as part of the main manuscript file.

    Abstracts are also required for review articles; however, these do not need to be in a structured format.

    In addition, authors whose native language is not English may submit a Foreign Language Abstract along with the manuscript file. If the manuscript is accepted, the Foreign Language Abstract will be published with the final published article.

  3. Text

    The text should be double-spaced.

    In a brief Introduction (don't use any subheadings), provide the research rationale and objectives without extensively reviewing the literature.

    In the Methods section, describe the experimental design, subjects used, and procedures followed. Previously published procedures should be identified by reference only. Provide sufficient detail to enable others to duplicate the research. Use standard chemical or nonproprietary pharmaceutical nomenclature. In parentheses, identify specific sources by brand name, company, city, and state or country.

    If human subjects were involved in the investigation, the Methods section must confirm that: (1) informed consent was obtained from the subjects after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study; and (2) where applicable, the research was conducted in compliance with a suitable accredited Institutional Review Board (IRB) or its equivalent (such as a human ethics committee).

    If experimental animals were used in the investigation, the Methods section must confirm adherence to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research and, where applicable, approval by the appropriate IRB.

    Present the Results with a minimum of discussion. Cite all tables and figures in numerical order.

    Limit the Discussion to statistically significant data and their limitations. Do not reiterate results.

    Please review your manuscript carefully prior to submission. Authors needing or seeking assistance with English grammar and usage should utilize the assistance provided by their institution, or use the services of a commercial organization who specialize in manuscript preparation and editing.


    Acknowledgments should be written in the third person and be limited to colleagues and research assistants. Acknowledgments are not meant to recognize appreciation for personal or manuscript production support. Including dedications to individuals or groups is not permitted by TVST journal policy.

  4. References List references numerically by order of citation in the text, not alphabetically. All references must be cited in the text or tables, shown as superscript numbers. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references.
    • Unpublished data (including material in preparation or submitted) or personal communications should be listed parenthetically in the text only with year received or recorded.
    • References to journal articles should include (1) author(s) (if there are more than six, write "et al." after the third name), (2) title, (3) journal name (as abbreviated in Index Medicus), (4) year, (5) volume number, (6) issue number, and (7) inclusive page numbers.
    • References to books should include (1) author(s), (2) chapter title (if any), (3) editors (if any), (4) title of book, (5) city of publication, (6) publisher, (7) year, and (8) inclusive page numbers.
    • ARVO abstract citations are to appear parenthetically within the text, not as bibliographic references. For ARVO abstracts from 1977 to 2001, citations should include (1) name of first author, (2) "IOVS", (3) year, (4) volume number, (5) "ARVO Abstract", and (6) program number. For ARVO abstracts from 2002 forward, citations should include (1) name of first author, (2) "IOVS", (3) year, (4) volume number, (5) "ARVO E-Abstract", and (6) program number.
    • Reviewers are not required to look up online website references.



    Choudhury A, Palkanis VA, Bowers WE. Characterisation and functional activity of dendritic cells from rat choroid. Exp Eye Res. 1994;59(3):297-304.


    Stryer L. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: WH Freeman; 1981:559-596.


    1977-2001: (Otaishat NM, et al. IOVS 1997;38:ARVO Abstract 1417)

    2002- : (Roska BM, et al. IOVS 2002;43:ARVO E-Abstract 1415)


  5. Tables, legends, figures, supplementary material
    • Tables must be included in the main manuscript file. Each table should have a brief, self-contained title, understandable without reference to the text. Assign a short heading to each table column. Footnotes in tables should use symbols in the following sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, and #. Data that can be given in the text in two or three sentences should not be presented in table format.
    • Legends should sum up the intent and content of the data contained in the figure. Use complete sentences or noun phrases with necessary modifiers, and conclude with a period.
    • Figures should be cited in the text, in numerical order using Arabic numerals. Figures may be placed within the main manuscript file or uploaded separately. If a figure contains multiple parts, it should be assembled on one page; Figures 1A and 1B should not appear on separate pages. Please label each figure appropriately just beneath the inserted image. For example, labels should read "Fig. 1" or "Figure 1."

      In the event that your manuscript is accepted, the Editorial Office will require you to upload your figures as TIFF or EPS files for production. Therefore, while any type of file may be embedded within the manuscript file, it is recommended that graphics be prepared using a program which can save files in a format that can ultimately be saved and submitted as EPS or TIFF.

      Color graphics should be saved in RGB (Red, Green, Blue) rather than CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black). For accepted manuscripts, the minimum resolution requirement for figure files is 300 dpi.

    • Supplementary material can be included at the end of the main manuscript file or uploaded separately. Supplementary material must be cited in the manuscript text, e.g., "See Supplementary Table S1 for a list of mutations." Acceptable file types include JPG, PDF, Excel, Word. Acceptable file types for movies are mpg, mpeg, mov, avi and wmv. Movie files should be small enough that most people will be able to view them easily. If you have any questions, please contact the Editorial Office.
  6. File Formats

    Manuscript files will be converted into an unalterable PDF format that will be sent to the reviewers. The main manuscript document must be submitted in one of the following formats:

    • Microsoft Word (.doc)
    • PDF (.pdf): Should you choose to initially upload a PDF document for peer review, please note that you will need to upload a word processing document, with either a .doc or .rtf extension, upon acceptance.
    • LaTeX: For peer review, please upload a PDF; if your manuscript is accepted after review, the LaTeX files may then be submitted for production.

    Do not use other word processing systems as they are not supported by eJournal Press, nor are they all readily available to those involved in the review process.

  7. Style

    Follow guidelines of style, terminology, measurement, and quantitation as set forth in the American Medical Association Manual of Style (9th ed., Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1998).

    • Use initial caps and descriptive clauses for titles and subheadings, avoiding complete sentences or questions.
    • Keep abbreviations and acronyms to a minimum and define them at first mention.
    • Use Système International (SI) measurements ( throughout the paper.
    • Please use basic fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Arial is recommended as the font that causes the fewest problems during conversion to PDF.
    • Place equations in their appropriate locations within the text of the manuscript. This will ensure their accurate appearance in the PDF proof.


Web Uploading Instructions

Submit your manuscript to TVST online at Do not submit a manuscript more than once; this constitutes a double submission and is a violation of the TVST copyright statement. Follow the directions for each screen.



After an initial review of the paper, the Editor-in-Chief assigns it to an Associate Editor (AE). The AE then selects an Editorial Board Member (EBM) who is an expert in the field and who will be responsible for guiding the paper through the review process. The EBM selects several outside reviewers to ensure that two reviewers can be obtained. Once the completed reviews are returned, the EBM critiques them, synthesizing them in a coherent manner for transmission to the corresponding author. At the same time, the EBM recommends a decision to the AE. The AE reviews all material and renders a decision, which is then e-mailed to the author. In the case of rejections, the AE forwards their recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision. Submissions by nonmembers of ARVO will be given equal consideration.


If your manuscript has been accepted, please contact Instructions will also be provided in the acceptance letter.


All appeals and complaints should be sent to the editorial office by email,, and will be considered by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) unless the EIC has a conflict of interest, in which case an Associate Editor (AE) will handle the issue. The Editor-in-Chief (who is elected for a 5-year term by the ARVO society members) has the final say when considering all complaints and appeals of decisions. Many manuscripts are rejected by the EIC, in consultation with an AE, without external peer-review based on a judgment that they do not fit the scope or quality standards of the journal. These assessments are unlikely to change on appeal. Similarly, a decision obtained after a well conducted peer-review process is not often overturned by the EIC. A well-founded appeal should clearly describe why specific grounds for a decision are demonstrably wrong. All appeal decisions are made by the EIC and are final.


All issues relating to published articles should be reported by email, When a corresponding author reports an error in their published article it can usually be corrected by publishing an Erratum and making changes to the article. When the change is straightforward (e.g. misspelling of an author name, correction of grant information, etc.) it may be done by journal staff. When a change requested by an author is more significant (especially when related to the science) it will be brought to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) who will oversee the correction process. Significant issues in a published article that require correction may also be reported by a reader (who is not an author of the article) to the editorial office. These will always be considered first by the EIC, and the authors of the article will be contacted before a final decision about a correction is made by the EIC. (The identity of the person reporting the issue will not be shared with the authors of the article) In rare cases, when the validity of the article is sufficiently compromised, a Retraction will be considered. Letters to the Editor (as described above) will also be considered as a way of expressing alternative points of view that are of significant scientific interest to the community served by the journal. Clear significant errors in articles, no matter how they are reported, are usually better corrected by publishing Errata and making changes to the articles.


For articles published 2012-2015

If you would like to reuse a figure or table from an article that you previously published in TVST, you do not need written permission. When reprinting the TVST material, however, please include a full article citation and acknowledge the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology as the copyright holder.

If you would like to use material from an TVST article for which you were NOT an author, please obtain permission through the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). There is a fee of $35 per figure or table plus a small CCC service fee. When reprinting the TVST material, please include a full article citation and acknowledge the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology as the copyright holder. If you have questions or an unusual request, e.g., reuse of material online, please contact the Editorial Office at

All companies, commercial and nonprofit, should contact ARVO directly for permission to reprint articles or parts thereof. Please e-mail your request to

For articles published 2016 and later

If you would like to reuse a figure or table from an article that you previously published in TVST, you do not need written permission. When reprinting the TVST material, however, please include a full article citation.

If you would like to use material from an TVST article for which you were NOT an author, you may do so in the manner specified by the Creative Commons license applied to the article (either the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs or the Creative Commons Attribution license). In the PDF of the article, the license type is listed at the bottom of the first page. Please note that if any material (e.g., a figure) was published previously, you will need to contact the copyright holder of that material to obtain permission to reuse it.

Calls for Papers

Translational Vision Science and Technology (TVST) is an open-access, online and peer-reviewed journal that was launched in May 2012. Articles emphasize multidisciplinary research that bridges the gap between basic research and clinical care. All published content is available in PubMed Central.

TVST covers a broad spectrum of work, including (but not limited to):

  • Applications of stem cell technology for regenerative medicine
  • Development of new animal models of human diseases
  • Tissue bioengineering
  • Chemical engineering to improve virus-based gene delivery
  • Nanotechnology for drug delivery
  • Design and synthesis of artificial extracellular matrices
  • Developments in ophthalmic surgery
  • Refining data analysis algorithms to improve in vivo imaging technology
  • Results of Phase 1 clinical trials
  • Reverse translational ("bedside to bench") research

TVST welcomes manuscripts from scientists and clinicians of diverse backgrounds, with the goal of bringing together research that extends beyond ophthalmology.

Current and New Techniques for Myopia Control and Prediction Special Issue

Do you have research on current and new techniques for myopia control and prediction that is ready to publish? Submit your work for the upcoming TVST special issue, edited by TVST Associate Editor Hema Radhakrishnan, PhD, MCOptom, from University of Manchester, and Guest Editor Seang-Mei Saw, MBBS, MPH, PhD, Distinguished Professor, from the Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore.

The issue will feature peer-reviewed articles based on current and new techniques used for myopia control and prediction. We welcome submissions across a broad range of related topics, including investigations of current and new devices and drugs for myopia control including spectacles, contact lenses, light therapy devices and combination therapies, efficacy of current myopia control modalities, research on identifying high-risk children, predicting myopia and its progression aimed at promoting further understanding in this fast moving research area.

The deadline for submission is March 31, 2024. All submissions will be peer reviewed, and publication fees will apply to papers that are accepted. Accepted papers will be published as ready in the current monthly issue as well as presented together in a special issue on the TVST website.

Biomechanics of the Eye Special Issue

Do you have research on ocular biomechanics that is ready to publish? Submit your work for the upcoming TVST special issue, edited by:
Jorge Alió, MD, PhD, TVST Associate Editor, University Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Spain
Francisco Cavas, PhD, TVST Associate Editor, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain
Renato Ambrósio Jr., MD, PhD, Guest Editor, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

We welcome submissions across a broad range of related topics across all parts of the eye and orbit in normal health and disease, including but not restricted to:
- Investigations of current and new laboratory techniques for biomechanical assessments
- Clinical biomechanical measurements
- Effects of therapeutics and other treatments on ocular biomechanics
- Finite element numerical simulations
- Application of artificial intelligence to ocular biomechanics

The deadline for submission is August 31, 2024. All submissions will be peer reviewed, and publication fees will apply to papers that are accepted. Accepted papers will be published as ready in the current monthly issue as well as presented together in a special issue on the TVST website.

New Frontiers in Optical Coherence Tomography Special Issue

Does your research push forward the frontier of optical coherence tomography (OCT)? Submit your work for the upcoming TVST special issue.

Editor: David Huang, MD, PhD, Oregon Health & Science University
Joel Schuman, MD, Wills Eye Hospital
Amani Fawzi, MD, Northwestern University
Yali Jia, PhD, Oregon Health & Science University
Anthony Kuo, MD, Duke University

We welcome submissions across a broad range of related topics, including new technologies that improve the speed, resolution, and field of view of OCT; novel contrast mechanisms for OCT; artificial intelligence and other techniques to improve image processing and interpretation; development of novel imaging biomarkers and disease features; and investigations in new clinical applications and new ways to use OCT and OCT angiography.

The deadline for submission is August 31, 2024. All submissions will be peer reviewed, and publication fees will apply to papers that are accepted. Accepted papers will be published as ready in the current monthly issue as well as presented together in a special issue on the TVST website.

Anti-VEGF Special Issue (TVST and IOVS)

We are excited to announce an ARVO journal special issue on anti-VEGF. Because the topic is broad and bridges both basic and translational research, we have decided to make this ARVO's first cross-journal special issue to be published across TVST and IOVS. Authors are encouraged to submit their articles to whichever journal is better suited based on the TVST and IOVS guidelines. (Click here to submit to TVST or here to submit to IOVS.) The submission deadline for the issue is October 1, 2024, but we encourage you to submit your research article without delay, as articles accepted after peer-review will be published in the journals' monthly issues and added to the dedicated cross-journal special issue table of contents as soon as they are ready.

The timing of the issue opening in 2024 coincides with the 30th anniversary of the American Journal of Pathology article suggesting a role for VEGF in ocular neovascularization and with the 20th anniversary of the FDA approval of anti-VEGF drug Pegaptanib (Macugen) for the treatment of AMD. It also aligns with ARVO's initiative to commemorate the groundbreaking influence of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy on global eye care.

The scope of the issue includes but is not limited to the use of anti-VEGF in wet AMD, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular edema, retinal vein occlusion, neovascular glaucoma, corneal neovascularization and ocular tumors.

Roy S. Chuck, MD, PhD – Editor-in-Chief, TVST
Joseph Carroll, PhD – Editor-in-Chief, IOVS

Special Issue on Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Pathology of Inherited Retinal Degenerations; Towards Improving Patient Care

We are pleased to announce a special issue of TVST dedicated to the comprehensive exploration of cellular and molecular pathology of inherited retinal degenerations (IRD) edited by TVST Associate Editors Radha Ayyagari, PhD, from Shiley Eye Institute, University of California San Diego, and Jose-Alain Sahel, MD, from University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; and Guest Editors Andrew Webster, MD, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, and Andrew Goldberg, PhD, from Oakland University, Rochester, MI.

This special issue aims to bring together innovative perspectives and advancements in the understanding of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) biology, disease mechanism, phenotype-genotype correlations, model systems and potential therapeutic strategies. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of IRDs is crucial for developing therapies.

Scope of the Special Issue: We invite original research articles focusing on, but not limited to, the following topics:
- Clinical manifestations, disease progression, and natural history studies
- Molecular mechanisms underlying pathology
- Genetics, genotype-phenotype correlations and disease variability
- Animal models and in vitro studies elucidating disease mechanisms
- Diagnostic approaches, biomarkers, and genetic testing advancements
- Novel technologies and innovative approaches in studying IRDs
- Therapeutic strategies, including gene therapies and pharmacological interventions
- Potential outcome measures for clinical trials

Submission Guidelines:
The deadline for submission is December 31, 2024. Manuscripts should be prepared following the TVST guidelines for authors available on the journal's website. Submissions will undergo peer review, and publication fees will apply to papers that are accepted.
Accepted papers will be published as ready in the current monthly issue as well as presented together in a special issue on the TVST website.


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